Bensodiazepiner, biverkningar och risker

100 referenser ur den medicinska litteraturen:

Agardh E.
Bensodiazepiner och GABA-neuron i näthinnan.
Kabi-Journalen 1985; 5: 205-206.

Angus WR, Romney DM.
The Effect of Diazepam on Patients` Memory.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1984; 4: 203-206.

Ashton H.
Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes from Benzodiazepines.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1991; 8: 19-28.

Ashton H.
Protracted Withdrawal from Benzodiazepines: The Post-Withdrawal Syndrome.
Psychiatric Annals 1995; 25: 174-179.

Beely L.
Benzodiazepines and Tinnitus.
BMJ 1991; 302: 1465.

Bergman H, Borg S, Engelbrektson K, Vikander B.
Dependence on Sedative-Hypnotics: Neuropsychological Impairment, Field Dependence and Clinical Course in a 5-Year Follow-Up Study.
British Journal of Addiction 1989; 84: 547-553.

Binder W, Kornhuber HH, Waiblinger G.
Benzodiazepin-Sucht - unsere iatrogene Seuche 157 Fälle von Benzodiazepin-Abhängigkeit.
[ Addiction to Benzodiazepines - Our Iatrogenic Disease 157 Cases of Benzodiazepine Dependence. ]
Öffentliches Gesundheitswesen 1984; 46: 80-86.

Blennow G, Romelsjö A, Leifman H, Karlsson G.
Sedatives and Hypnotics in Stockholm: Social Factors and Kinds of Use.
American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84: 242-246.

Borg S, Blennow G, Sandberg P, Tönne U, Vikander B.
Bensodiazepinberoende och andra långtidsbiverkningar - en översikt.
[ Benzodiazepine Dependence and Other Long-Term Side Effects A Survey. ]
Läkartidningen 1986; 83: 321-326.

Borg S.
Sedative Hypnotic Dependence: Neuropsychological Changes and Clinical Course.
Nordisk Psykiatrisk Tidskrift 1987; 41 (suppl 15): 17-19.

Burke KC, Meek WJ, Krych R, Nisbet R, Burke JD.
Medical Services Use by Patients before and after Detoxification from Benzodiazepine Dependence.
Psychiatric Services 1995; 46: 157-160.

Busto U, Fornazzari L, Naranjo CA.
Protracted Tinnitus after Discontinuation of Long-Term Therapeutic Use of Benzodiazepines.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1988; 8: 359-362.

Byrne A.
Benzodiazepines: The End of a Dream.
Australian Family Physician 1994; 23: 1584-1585.

Cohen SI.
Are Benzodiazepines Useful in Anxiety ?
Lancet 1987; ii: 1080.

Cohen SI.
Phobic Disorders and Benzodiazepines in the Elderly.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1992; 160: 135.

Cohen SI.
Alcohol and Benzodiazepines Generate Anxiety, Panic and Phobias.
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 1995; 88: 73-77.

Drummond LM, Matthews HP.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Occurring as a Complication in Benzodiazepine Withdrawal.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1988; 176: 688-691.

Editorial.
Tranquillizers Causing Aggression.
BMJ 1975; i: 113-114.

Editorial.
Some Problems with Benzodiazepines.
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 1985; 23: 21-23.

Editorial.
Lessening the Use of Benzodiazepines.
Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 1987; 25: 57-59.

Ellis P, Carney MWP.
Managing Anxiety Without Benzodiazepines.
Holistic Medicine 1987; 2: 87-94.

Ericsson HR, Holmgren P, Jakobsson SW, Lafolie P, De Rees B.
Bensodiazepinfynd i obduktionsmaterial. Studie påvisar samverkande faktorer vid dödsfall.
[ Benzodiazepine Findings in an Autopsy Series A Study Showing Interacting Factors at Death. ]
Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 3954-3957.

Fava GA.
Anxiety Sensitivity.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1996; 153: 1109.

Floyd JB, Murphy CM.
Hallucinations Following Withdrawal of Valium.
Journal of Kentucky Medical Association 1976; 74: 549-550.

Foy A, O`Connell D, Henry D, Kelly J, Cocking S, Halliday J.
Benzodiazepine Use as a Cause of Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Hospital Inpatients.
Journal of Gerontology 1995; 50A: M99-M106.

French AP.
Dangerously Aggressive Behavior as a Side Effect of Alprazolam.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1989; 146: 276.

Genå-Badia J, Blay-Pueyo C, Soler-Vila M.
Risk-Factors in the Use of Benzodiazepines.
Family Practice 1988; 5: 283-288.

Gillberg C.
Diazepamintoxikation i nyföddhetsperioden.
[ Diazepam at the End of Pregnancy - Grave Risks to the Neonate. ]
Läkartidningen 1977; 74: 2587-2588.

Golombok S, Moodley P, Lader M.
Cognitive Impairment in Long-Term Benzodiazepine Users.
Psychological Medicine 1988; 18: 365-374.

Grad R.
Addiction to Benzodiazepines - How Common ?
Archives of Family Medicine 1996; 5: 384.

Gudex C.
Adverse Effects of Benzodiazepines.
Social Science and Medicine 1991; 33: 587-596.

Hall RCW, Joffe JR.
Aberrant Response to Diazepam: A New Syndrome.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1972; 129: 738-742.

Hansson O, Tonnby B.
Allvarliga psykiska symtom orsakade av klonazepam.
[ Serious Psychological Symptoms Caused by Clonazepam. ]
Läkartidningen 1976; 73: 1209-1210.

Hartviksen I.
Er diazepinene så uskyldige og forskrivningen blant norske leger så moderat som expertisen gir uttrykk for ?
[ Are the Benzodiazepines as Innocent and Prescription among Norwegian Physicians as Moderate as the Experts Say ? ]
Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening 1981; 101: 595.

Hecker R, Burr M, Newbury G.
Risk of Benzodiazepine Dependence Resulting from Hospital Admission.
Drug and Alcohol Review 1992; 11: 131-135.

Hendler N, Cimini C, Ma T, Long D.
Comparison of Cognitive Impairment Due to Benzodiazepines and to Narcotics.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1980; 137: 828-830.

Higgitt A, Fonagy P, Toone B, Shine P.
The Prolonged Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndrome: Anxiety or Hysteria ?
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1990; 82: 165-168.

Hindmarch I.
Benzodiazepines and Traffic Accidents.
BMJ 1979; iii: 671.

Holm M.
One Year Follow-Up of Users of Benzodiazepines in General Practice.
Danish Medical Bulletin 1990; 37: 188-191.

Kaplan SR, Murkofsky C.
Oral-Buccal Dyskinesia Symptoms Associated with Low-Dose Benzodiazepine Treatment.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1978; 135: 1558-1559.

Karch FE.
Rage Reaction Associated with Clorazepate Dipotassium.
Annals of Internal Medicine 1979; 91: 61-62.

Karkos J.
Neurotoxizität von Benzodiazepinen.
[ Neurotoxicity of Benzodiazepines.]
Fortschr Neurol Psychiat 1991; 59: 498-520.

Kemper N, Poser W, Poser S.
Benzodiazepin-Abhängigkeit Suchtpotential der Benzodiazepine grösser als bisher angenommen.
[ Benzodiazepine Dependence: Addiction Potential of the Benzodiazepines Is Greater Than Previously Assumed.]
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 1980; 105: 1707-1712.

Kennebäck G, Hollstedt C, Persson A.
Partiella komplexa epileptiska anfall med fokala EEG-förändringar vid bensodiazepinabstinens.
[ Complex Partial Seizures with Focal EEG Abnormalities During Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. ]
Läkartidningen 1992; 89: 2523-2525.

Khan A, Joyce P, Jones AV.
Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Syndromes.
New Zealand Medical Journal 1980; 92: 94-96.

King SA, Strain JJ.
Benzodiazepines and Chronic Pain.
Pain 1990; 41: 3-4.

Klienschmidt R, Price J, Caught K.
Doctor Shopping.
American Family Physician 1995; 24: 1037-1041.

Kornhuber HH.
Das Risiko Benzodiazepin.
[ The Benzodiazepine Risk.]
Deutsches Ärzteblatt 1988; 85: B-405.

Kripke DF, Garfinkel L.
Excess Nocturnal Deaths Related to Sleeping Pill and Tranquilliser Use.
Lancet 1984; i: 99.

Lader M.
History of Benzodiazepine Dependence.
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 1991; 8: 53-59.

Lader M.
Benzos and Memory Loss: More Than Just "Old Age".
Prescriber 1992; 3: 13.

Laegreid L, Hagberg G, Lundberg A.
The Effect of Benzodiazepines on the Fetus and the Newborn.
Neuropediatrics 1992; 23: 18-23.

Lennane KJ.
Treatment of Benzodiazepine Dependece.
Medical Journal of Australia 1986; 144: 594-597.

Lidbeck J.
Onödigt bruk av bensodiazepiner i öppen vård - förslag till lokala tillsynsprogram och fortbildning.
[ Unnecessary Use of Benzodiazepines in General Practice. ]
Läkartidningen 1987; 84: 1764-1767.

Mac DS, Kumar R, Goodwin DW.
Anterograde Amnesia with Oral Lorazepam.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1985; 46: 137-138.

Maletzky BM, Klotter J.
Addiction to Diazepam.
International Journal of the Addictions 1976; 11: 95-115.

Marcus A, Bahro M, Sartoris J, Schmidt MH.
Acute Exogenic Psychosis Following Oral Ingestion of 2 mg Lormetazepam in an Eleven- Year-Old Boy.
Pharmacopsychiatry 1993; 26: 102-103.

Matthews HP, Drummond LM.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - A Complication of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1987; 150: 272.

McNamee D.
Snorting Flunitrazepam.
Lancet 1994; 344: 187.

Miller F, Nulsen J.
Diazepam (Valium) Detoxification.
Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1979; 167: 637-638.

Miller NS, Gold MS.
Benzodiazepines: Reconsidered.
Advances in Alcohol and Substance Abuse 1990; 8: 67-84.

Misra PC.
Nitrazepam (Mogadon) Dependence.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1975; 126: 81-82.

Moley FM, Dawkes M, Berry JP.
Avoid Benzodiazepines Whenever Possible.
BMJ 1994; 308: 1709-1710.

Moore C.
Oxazepam Withdrawal Syndrome.
Medical Journal of Australia 1982; 2: 220.

Murphy SM, Owen RT, Tyrer PJ.
Withdrawal Symptoms after Six Weeks' Treatment with Diazepam.
Lancet 1984; ii: 1389.

Nathan RG, Robinson D, Cherek DR, Davidson S, Sebastian S, Hack M.
Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use and Depression.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1985; 142: 144-145.

O`Brian CP, McLellan AT.
Myths about the Treatment of Addiction.
Lancet 1996; 347: 237-240.

Oster G, Huse DM, Adams SF, Imbimbo J, Russell MW.
Benzodiazepine Tranquilizers and the Risk of Accidental Injury.
American Journal of Public Health 1990; 80: 1467-1470.

Ottosson JO.
Visa urskillning och respekt inför bensodiazepiner !
Läkartidningen 1991; 88: 2438-2440.

Parkes AJ, Killer GT.
Restricting Access to Benzodiazepines as a Way to Reduce Prescribing - Does It Work ?
Medical Journal of Australia 1994; 160: 663-664.

Patch VD.
The Dangers of Diazepam, a Street Drug.
New England Journal of Medicine 1974; 290: 807.

Patterson JF.
Triazolam Syndrome in the Elderly.
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Prescott LF.
Safety of the Benzodiazepines.
In: Costa E, ed. The Benzodiazepines. From Molecular Biology to Clinical Practice.
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Priest RG, Montgomery SA.
Benzodiazepines and Dependence: A College Statement.
Bulletin of the Royal College of Psychiatrists 1988; 12: 107-109.

Ramster D, Barber AJ, Deb A, Free K.
A Policy on Benzodiazepines.
Lancet 1987; ii: 1406.

Rexed B.
Stor illegal världshandel med bensodiazepiner.
[ An Extensive Illegal World-Wide Trade with Benzodiazepines. ]
Läkartidningen 1995; 92: 3349-3350.

Roberts K, Vass N.
Schneiderian First-Rank Symptoms Caused by Benzodiazepine Withdrawal.
British Journal of Psychiatry 1986; 148: 593-594.

Romney DM, Angus WR.
A Brief Review of the Effects of Diazepam on Memory.
Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1984; 20: 313-316.

Rosenbaum AH, de la Fuente JR.
Benzodiazepines and Tardive Dyskinesia.
Lancet 1979; ii: 900.

Rosenbaum JF, SW Woods, Groves JE, Klerman GL.
Emergence of Hostility During Alprazolam Treatment.
American Journal of Psychiatry 1984; 141: 792-793.

Rowlatt RJ.
Effects of Maternal Diazepam.
BMJ 1978; i: 985.

Ryan HF, Merrill FB, Scott GE, Krebs R, Thompson BL.
Increase in Suicidal Thoughts and Tendencies Association with Diazepam Therapy.
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Ryynänen OP, Kivelä SL, Honkanen R, Laippala P, Saano V.
Medications and Chronic Diseases as Risk Factors for Falling Injuries in the Elderly.
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Salzman C, Fisher J, Nobel K, Glassman R, Wolfson A, Kelley M.
Cognitive Improvement Following Benzodiazepine Discontinuation in Elderly Nursing Home Residents.
Internationl Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1992; 7: 89-93.

Schmauss C, Krieg JC.
Enlargement of Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces in Long-Term Benzodiazepine Abusers.
Psychological Medicine 1987; 17: 869-873.

Schneidert-Helmert D.
Why Low-Dose Benzodiazepine-Dependent Insomniacs Canït Escape Their Sleeping Pills.
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 1988; 78: 706-711.

Sjöberg C.
Bensodiazepiner. Läkare i tjänst hos allmänhet och industri: Dags ta ansvar för läkemedelsmissbruket !
Läkartidningen 1993; 90: 1670-1675.

Strang J.
Intravenous and Other Novel Abuses of Benzodiazepines: The Opening of Pandoras Box ?
British Journal of Addiction 1992; 87: 1373-1375.

Surendrakumar D, Dunn M, Roberts CJC.
Hospital Admission and the Start of Benzodiazepine Use.
BMJ 1992; 304: 881.

Tata PR, Rollings J, Collins M, Pickering A, Jacobson RR.
Lack of Cognitive Recovery Following Withdrawal from Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use.
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Psychiatric Complications of Rohypnol Abuse.
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Withdrawal from Benzodiazepines.
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Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use Is Associated with Smaller Treatment Gain in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia.
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Vellucci SV.
Chlordiazepoxide Loses Its Anxiolytic Action with Long-Term Treatment.
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Läkemedelsberoende. Öppenvårdsbehandling med stödkontakt och långsam nedtrappning ger gott resultat.
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Wysowski DK, Barash D.
Adverse Behavioral Reactions Attributed to Triazolam in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting System.
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Adverse Behavioral Effects of Benzodiazepines.
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Benzodiazepine Use in the Elderly Prior to Psychiatric Hospitalization.
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Strange Behavior with Oxazepam.
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