Question stated - Little prospect of a determination of it, from the enmity of the opposing parties - The principal argument against the perfectibility of man and of society has never been fairly answered - Nature of the difficulty arising from population - Outline of the principal argument of the Essay. The different ratio in which population and food increase - The necessary effects of these different ratios of increase - Oscillation produced by them in the condition of the lower classes of society - Reasons why this oscillation has not been so much observed as might be expected - Three propositions on which the general argument of the Essay depends -- The different states in which mankind have been known to exist proposed to be examined with reference to these three propositions. The savage or hunter state shortly reviewed - The shepherd state, or the tribes of barbarians that overran the Roman Empire - The superiority of the power of population to the means of subsistence - the cause of the great tide of Northern Emigration. State of civilized nations - Probability that Europe is much more populous now than in the time of Julius Caesar - Best criterion of population - Probable error of Hume in one the criterions that he proposes as assisting in an estimate of population - Slow increase of population at present in most of the states of Europe - The two principal checks to population - The first, or preventive check examined with regard to England. The second, or positive check to population examined, in England - The true cause why th immense sum collected in England for the poor does not better their condition - The powerful tendency of the poor laws to defeat their own purpose - Palliative of the distresses of the poor proposed - The absolute impossibility, from the fixed laws of our nature, that the pressure of want can ever be completely removed from the lower classes of society - All the checks to population may be resolved into misery or vice. New colonies - Reasons for their rapid increase - North American Colonies - Extraordinary instance of increase in the back settlements - Rapidity with which even old states recover the ravages of war, pestilence, famine, or the convulsions of nature.
An Essay on the Principle of Population
An Essay on the Principle of Population Summary | SuperSummary
Buku An Essay on the Principle of Population pertama kali diterbitkan pada dengan nama alias Joseph Johnson ,   namun pengarangnya kemudian diidentifikasikan sebagai Thomas Robert Malthus. Meskipun buku tersebut bukanlah buku pertama tentang populasi, buku tersebut dikenal sebagai karya paling berpengaruh pada masanya. Edisi ke-6nya secara independen dinyatakan sebagai pengaruh penting oleh Charles Darwin dan Alfred Russel Wallace dalam mengembangkan teori seleksi alam. An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Thomas Robert Malthus
The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in ,  but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. The book warned of future difficulties, on an interpretation of the population increasing in geometric progression so as to double every 25 years  while food production increased in an arithmetic progression , which would leave a difference resulting in the want of food and famine, unless birth rates decreased. While it was not the first book on population, Malthus's book fuelled debate about the size of the population in Britain and contributed to the passing of the Census Act This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, starting in and continuing every ten years to the present. The book's 6th edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.
Not only did it help to establish the modern field of economics, it aided Charles Darwin on his regarding evolutionary science. This essay will. At first I will provide a short biographical note on Malthus and I will also mention his main achievements. Then, a summary of Malthus' main ideas of the first two chapters of mentioned work follows.