In spite of the interest in software architecture as a field of research, there is little agreement among researchers as to what exactly should be included in the definition of architecture. In many cases, this has led to important aspects of architectural design being overlooked by past research. This chapter defines a self-consistent terminology for software architecture based on an examination of existing definitions within the literature and my own insight with respect to network-based application architectures. Each definition, highlighted within a box for ease of reference, is followed by a discussion of how it is derived from, or compares to, related research. At the heart of software architecture is the principle of abstraction: hiding some of the details of a system through encapsulation in order to better identify and sustain its properties [ ].
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Textual Works. Data Sets. Audiovisual Media. Online Media. More than reference examples and their corresponding in-text citations are presented in the seventh edition Publication Manual. Examples of the most common works that writers cite are provided on this page; additional examples are available in the Publication Manual. To find the reference example you need, first select a category e.
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A project or program is any undertaking, carried out individually or collaboratively and possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned usually by a project team [ citation needed ] to achieve a particular aim. An alternative view sees a project managerially as a sequence of events: a "set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations". A project may be a temporary rather than permanent social system work system , possibly constituted by teams within or across organizations to accomplish particular tasks under time constraints. A project may be a part of wider programme management [ citation needed ] or an ad hoc structure. Note that open-source software "projects" for example may lack defined team-membership, precise planning and time-limited durations.